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Chronic small intestinal gastroenteritis/enteritis in pets is a common condition that can have a significant impact on the quality of life of animals and their owners.

This pathology is characterized by prolonged inflammation of the small intestine, which can result in persistent symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, weight loss, and nutrient malabsorption. In this article, we will address the management of chronic gastroenteritis and highlight the role of nutraceuticals, particularly Dr+Vet’s Digestum, in the treatment of this condition.

Causes and Diagnosis of Chronic Enteritis

Chronic enteritis can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial, parasitic or viral infections, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), food intolerances, and autoimmune diseases. Diagnosis usually requires a combination of clinical history, physical examinations, laboratory tests (hematology, blood chemistry), fecal analysis, imaging tests (x-rays, ultrasounds), and, in some cases, endoscopy with intestinal biopsies and fecal cultures.

Management of Chronic Enteritis

Management of chronic small intestinal enteritis usually involves a combination of dietary modifications, drug therapy, and, increasingly, the use of nutraceuticals. Dietary strategies may include elimination diets, hypoallergenic diets, and high-fiber diets. Drug therapy may include antibiotics, immunosuppressants, and anti-inflammatory agents.

The Role of Nutraceuticals in the Management of Chronic Enteritis

Nutraceuticals have gained popularity as a complementary treatment option due to their safety profile and the potential benefits they offer. Digestum from Dr+Vet is a nutraceutical specifically formulated to support intestinal health in cases of chronic enteritis. Let’s look at the key components of Digestum and its benefits:

Plasma Proteins

Plasma proteins have been shown to have positive effects on intestinal and general immunity. They work by modulating the immune response, which can help reduce intestinal inflammation and improve mucosal integrity. Plasma proteins can also stimulate cell proliferation and repair of damaged tissues. The concentrations of plasma proteins in Digestum exceed the minimum recommended daily intake, ensuring its effectiveness in the intestine of pets.

Hemp Flour

Hemp flour is rich in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, which have anti-inflammatory properties. In addition, it contains fiber, which can help regulate intestinal transit and improve stool consistency. Hemp flour is also a good source of plant proteins and antioxidants, which can support the animal’s overall health.

Prebiotics and Probiotics

Prebiotics, such as fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS), are non-digestible fibers that promote the growth of beneficial bacteria in the intestine. Probiotics (enterococci faecium) are live microorganisms that, administered in adequate quantities, confer health benefits to the host. The combination of prebiotics and probiotics in Digestum helps maintain a healthy balance of the intestinal microbiota, which is crucial for good digestion and nutrient absorption.

Aloe vera

Aloe vera is known for its anti-inflammatory and calming properties. In the context of chronic enteritis, aloe vera can help reduce gastric inflammation and promote healing of the intestinal mucosa. In addition, it has immunomodulatory properties that can benefit animals with immune dysfunctions.

Vitamins B9 and B12

Vitamins B9 (folic acid) and B12 (cobalamin) are essential for DNA synthesis and red blood cell production. In animals with chronic enteritis, there may be malabsorption of these vitamins, which may contribute to anemia and general weakness. Supplementation with these vitamins in Digestum helps prevent these deficiencies and maintain the general health of the animal.

Benefits of Digestum in the Management of Chronic Enteritis

Digestum offers a comprehensive formulation that addresses multiple aspects of intestinal health. Its components work synergistically to reduce inflammation, improve the integrity of the intestinal mucosa, and support general immunity. This can result in a reduction in clinical symptoms, improved nutrient absorption, and an overall improvement in the animal’s quality of life.

Summary of Digestum Benefits:

Reduction of intestinal and gastric inflammation: thanks to hemp flour and aloe vera.

Improvement of intestinal and general immunity: through plasma proteins.

Support for the intestinal microbiota: with the combination of prebiotics and probiotics.

Prevention of vitamin deficiencies: with the supplementation of vitamins B9 and B12.


Chronic small intestinal gastroenteritis/enteritis is a complex condition that requires a multidisciplinary approach to management. Nutraceuticals, such as Digestum from Dr+Vet, offer a valuable and safe option to complement traditional therapeutic strategies. By incorporating natural and scientifically supported ingredients, Digestum can help improve the intestinal health and overall well-being of pets suffering from this debilitating condition.

For veterinarians, it is crucial to stay up to date on the latest research and products available that can improve the care and quality of life of their patients. Digestum represents an effective and accessible tool to address the challenges associated with chronic small intestinal enteritis, providing an additional option in the veterinarian’s therapeutic arsenal.


In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the use of nutraceuticals for retinal diseases.

Despite advances in pharmaceutical therapies, the protection of retinal neural tissue remains a significant challenge due to its limited regenerative capacity. In this context, research on the efficacy of nutraceuticals has become relevant, especially in the field of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this article, we will focus on the key ingredients present in Retinae, a nutraceutical product designed to maintain ocular health and prevent retinopathy.

The Retina

The retina is a highly specialized structure that lines the back of the eye and plays a crucial role in transmitting visual signals to the brain. Composed of several cell layers, the retina is highly vulnerable to damage caused by oxidative stress and inflammation, which are contributing factors in the development of diseases such as AMD. Maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the retina is critical to preserving visual health throughout life.

Retinae and RetinaeXL Ingredients

Tagetes erecta (Carotenoids – Lutein and Zeaxanthin):

Carotenoids, such as lutein and zeaxanthin, are plant pigments with antioxidant properties. Clinical studies, such as the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), have shown that lutein and zeaxanthin may help protect the retina against oxidative damage and cellular degeneration associated with AMD. Supplementation with these carotenoids has shown significant benefits in preventing disease progression and preserving visual function.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids:

Omega-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are known for their anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Studies have shown that omega-3 supplementation can reduce retinal inflammation and neovascularization, two processes involved in the pathogenesis of AMD. In addition, omega-3 can modulate gene expression and improve retinal cell function, which contributes to the preservation of ocular health.

Vitamins (C, E, B [B6, B9, B12])

Antioxidant vitamins, such as vitamin C and vitamin E, play a crucial role in protecting the retina against oxidative stress. In addition, B vitamins, including B6, B9 and B12, are involved in the regulation of cellular metabolism and the prevention of neurodegeneration. Supplementation with these vitamins can help maintain retinal health and prevent the development of diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and AMD.

Minerals (Zinc and Copper)

Zinc and copper are essential minerals for cellular function and normal metabolism. Zinc supplementation can protect the retina against oxidative damage and cellular degeneration associated with AMD. In addition, copper plays an important role in regulating oxidative stress and inflammatory response, thus contributing to overall ocular health.


Lactoferrin, an iron-binding protein with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, may help protect the retina against damage caused by inflammation and oxidative stress. Studies have shown that lactoferrin can modulate the immune response and reduce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines.


Retinae’s unique composition, which includes a combination of carotenoids, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and lactoferrin, offers a comprehensive strategy for the maintenance of ocular health and the prevention of retinopathies. By addressing multiple mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diseases such as AMD, Retinae is a nutritional supplement that delivers all of these nutrients to the body and the retina.

Download the PDF for more detailed information on the composition of Retinae and bibliographic references to the studies mentioned.

More information about Rethinopathies in our Blog:


The gastrointestinal health of pets is critical to their overall well-being.

Among the most common gastrointestinal problems is diarrhea, which can be a symptom of various medical conditions and disorders. In this extensive article, we will explore diarrhea in pets in depth, from its causes and symptoms to its diagnosis and treatment. In addition, we will specifically address chronic large bowel diarrhea, detailing its characteristics, causes and available treatment options.

What is Diarrhea?

Diarrhea in dogs is a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by loose or watery stools, which can occur acutely or chronically. When a dog experiences both vomiting and diarrhea at the same time, it is called gastroenteritis. Diarrhea can originate in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to different forms of the condition. If the diarrhea comes from the small intestine, it is known as enteritis, while if it comes from the large intestine, it is called colitis.

Causes of Diarrhea in Dogs

Diarrhea in dogs can have a wide variety of causes, which include:

  • Intestinal parasites.
  • Viral or bacterial infections.
  • Dietary changes.
  • Systemic diseases such as: renal, hepatic or pancreatic problems.
  • Ingestion of foreign bodies.
  • Immune-mediated diseases.
  • Oncological diseases.

Symptoms of Diarrhea

The symptoms of diarrhea vary according to its origin. Dogs with large intestinal diarrhea may have more frequent but smaller stools, possibly with fresh (red) blood, while those with small intestinal diarrhea may experience softer, bulkier stools with digested (dark) blood. Other symptoms may include loss of appetite, weight loss and behavioral changes.

What Can You Do for Your Pet?

If your dog has diarrhea, it is important to pay attention to his general condition and note the frequency and characteristics of the stools. Watching for signs of dehydration, monitoring his temperature and making sure he has access to sufficient water are key steps. In addition, monitoring his diet and avoiding foods that may worsen the situation is essential.

When to go to the Veterinarian?

It is advisable to take your dog to the veterinarian if his condition worsens, if diarrhea persists for more than 24 hours, if there is blood in the stool, if you suspect ingestion of foreign objects or toxic substances, or if he presents fever or hypothermia.

Diagnosis and Treatment

At the veterinarian, they will perform tests that they believe necessary to find out the origin of this diarrhea: stool analysis, blood tests, radiographs, ultrasound and endoscopies. Treatment will vary depending on the diagnosis, but may include intravenous fluid therapy, medications such as antibiotics or antiparasitics, dietary adjustments….

Focus on Chronic Large Bowel Diarrhea

Chronic large bowel diarrhea is a condition that requires a multidisciplinary approach for effective management. In this segment, we will explore the causes, symptoms and specific treatment options for this form of diarrhea, with a special emphasis on the role of nutrition in controlling symptoms and improving the quality of life of affected animals.

Chronic large bowel diarrhea in dogs can be caused by a variety of factors, such as food intolerances, infections, inflammatory bowel diseases, stress and diseases similar to irritable bowel syndrome. Identifying the underlying cause is crucial for effective treatment: which may include dietary therapy, medication, probiotics and stress management.

Dietary intervention plays a key role in the treatment of chronic large bowel diarrhea. A diet rich in highly digestible protein, low in fat and with both soluble and insoluble sources of fiber is recommended. In addition, supplements with probiotics, prebiotics such as Colitum from Dr+Vet can help restore intestinal balance and control symptoms.


Diarrhea in dogs is a common problem that can be worrisome for pet owners. However, with proper diagnosis and treatment, many cases of diarrhea can be successfully managed. It is critical to work in collaboration with a veterinarian to develop an individualized treatment plan that addresses your dog’s specific needs and promotes his long-term gastrointestinal health.

In summary, taking care of your pet’s gastrointestinal health is essential to ensure his overall well-being and quality of life. Whenever you notice changes in their behavior or symptoms of digestive distress, don’t hesitate to consult your veterinarian for proper guidance and care.


Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS), also known as “dry eye,” is a common ophthalmic condition in dogs and cats that affects the ocular surface, specifically the cornea and conjunctiva.

This disease results from the deficiency of some of the phases of the tear film, which leads to tear hyperosmolarity and, consequently, a series of ocular complications that can compromise the visual health of the animal.

The structure of the tear

To better understand KCS, it is important to know the three layers that make up the tear film and their functions:

  • Mucinous layer: This layer, the innermost, modifies the surface tension of the tear so that it adheres and distributes properly over the surface of the eye. Mucin is produced and secreted mainly in conjunctival goblet cells.
  • Aqueous layer: The intermediate layer, and the most abundant, hydrates the ocular surface and transports nutrients and oxygen essential for the metabolism of the cornea. It also acts as a flushing mechanism to remove debris and foreign bodies. This watery portion is produced and secreted in the main and accessory lacrimal glands.
  • Lipid layer: The outermost layer protects the aqueous layer from evaporation, allowing the tear to remain in the eye longer. In addition, it increases the surface tension of the tear, preventing overflow over the edge of the eyelid and lubricating the eyelids. This layer is produced and secreted mainly in the meibomian glands.

KCS classification

The KCS can be classified into two main types:

  • Qualitative KCS: It is produced by a pathological decrease in the lipid or mucoid components of the tear film, which makes it difficult for it to remain on the cornea, either due to excess evaporation or difficulty adhering. It is usually due to damage or inflammation in the meibomian glands or goblet cells of the conjunctiva.
  • Quantitative KCS: It is produced by a pathological decrease in the aqueous component of the tear film. It can have various causes, the most common being localized and chronic immune-mediated inflammation of the lacrimal gland. This is the most common form of KCS, and in most cases it progresses to a mixed form (quantitative and qualitative) over time.

What symptoms does it cause?

Symptoms of KCS may include mucosal exudate, conjunctival hyperemia, corneal opacity, neovascularization, corneal edema, and ulceration, among others. The diagnosis of KCS requires a thorough evaluation of the patient’s medical history and specific ophthalmological tests, such as the Schirmer Test, Fluorescein Test, and the Lysamine Green Test.

What treatment is used?

Treatment of KCS may include artificial tears, topical immunosuppressants, and surgical treatments, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the disease. Additionally, supplementation with specific nutraceuticals such as LACRIMALIS+ can help manage this disease, offering natural help to maintain pets’ eye health.


If your pet presents symptoms compatible with this disease, go to your trusted veterinarian for correct diagnosis and treatment.


When our pets get older, just like us, they start to require some special care and also a more exhaustive veterinary follow-up than during the rest of their lives.

From approximately 8 years of age, we recommend an annual visit where the veterinarian can check the weight, general physical condition, perform analytical or other tests if necessary. In these controls can be diagnosed diseases that do not yet have clinical signs and in which early treatment can slow the progression or development of such disease.

In this article we are going to focus on the most common vision defect in geriatric pets: cataracts. One of the most frequent ocular affections we see in the veterinary practice are cataracts. The origin of these cataracts is usually associated with age and degeneration of the crystalline lens due to the increase of its layers and the oxidative damage it suffers during its life. Other causes of cataracts can be diabetes mellitus, blows or trauma, congenital/hereditary or retinal atrophy.

How does a cataract form?
The crystalline lens is a lens formed by several layers located inside the eye, its function is to concentrate light so that it is properly projected on the retina. With the passage of time and the natural aging process, the lens tends to accumulate additional layers. This gradual process of layer accumulation can cause the lens to become denser and less transparent.

How do we detect that our pet has cataracts?
At home we can suspect the presence of cataracts and it will be the veterinarian who will confirm the diagnosis and will be able to tell us what treatment we can offer to our pet. If detected and treated in time, cataracts should not be a problem. At home we will be able to see a certain whitish or bluish opacity (at the beginning) in the crystalline lens. If the cataract is more advanced, we will clearly see the opacity or that the animal is hitting obstacles it may encounter due to the difficulty of vision.

In early stages (A,B), when it is not yet mature, there are still non-surgical treatment options such as dietary supplementation with vitamins and antioxidants to slow the onset of cataracts. Specialized nutritional supplements such as Occulus+ from Dr+Vet could be used to provide vitamins A, C, E and antioxidant minerals to slow the progression of the disease.

Once the cataract has evolved (C), a specialist veterinarian will indicate the best surgical solution, after an exhaustive review of the pet’s health and vision. Cataracts are an operable disease with a high success rate (around 90%). Post-surgical recovery usually takes a few days with anti-inflammatory eye drops and antibiotics until medical discharge.

Phases of cataract

Figure 1. Phases of cataract in dogs: A. Initial phase B. Immature cataract Immature cataract C. Mature cataract (point of surgery).
As the lens becomes less transparent and light can no longer pass through it clearly. In simple terms, the additional layers in the lens alter its original structure causing irreversible damage that affects its ability to focus light properly on the retina.

The Dr+Vet formula: Occulus+
As mentioned above, Dr+Vet offers the nutritional supplement Occulus+ recently reformulated to increase its antioxidant potential with alpha lipoic acid. This product contains abundant vitamins, minerals and antioxidant components that promote overall eye health and help slow disease progression.


Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is a condition of the ocular surface (cornea and conjunctiva) secondary to a deficiency of one of the phases of the tear film and has a prevalence in dogs of 0.4%, according to the IVO.

Qualitative QCS is characterized by a pathological decrease of lipid or mucoid components in the tear film. This leads to tear hyperosmolarity due to increased evaporation. It is more common in brachiocephalic breeds and in cases of lagophthalmos.

In this study, conducted in collaboration with the Instituto Veterinario Oftalmologico (IVO), a comprehensive evaluation of different therapeutic approaches for qualitative QCS was performed.

Ten dogs were selected, including five brachiocephalic breeds, with a two-month follow-up. The selected patients had blepharospasm, epiphora, increased serous secretions compared to normal, or a combination of these symptoms at the first visit and, in order to be included in the present study, had to have Schirmer’s test (STT-1) values above 10 mm/min.

Cases with corneal ulcer and those under treatment that could interfere with the diagnostic tests were excluded. A series of diagnostic tests were performed, such as Schirmer’s test (STT-1), fluorescein test, break-up time (TBUT), lissamine green test, impression cytology (CIC) and OSA-VET®.

The selected treatment included the use of topical moisturizers and lubricants as tear replacements. In addition, Dr+Vet’s Lacrimalis food supplement, rich in omega-3 fatty acids, lactoferrin, vitamins C and E, Zinc and Copper, was implemented.

The results indicated significant improvements in print cytology, interferometry and tear film breakup time. There was a slight reduction in tear production, possibly attributed to decreased compensatory reflex due to hyperosmolarity.


This clinical case comparison underscores the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in the management of qualitative QCS. The combination of topical moisturizers and lubricants with the supplement Lacrimalis offers a promising perspective in the management of this condition.

The clinical case comparison performed by the IVO provides a valuable contribution to the approach to qualitative QCS in dogs. We thank Drs. Maria Simó and Francisco Simó for their collaboration in this first approach to the use of nutraceuticals in ocular diseases in dogs.

You can consult the comparative of clinical cases here (in spanish): COMPARATIVA DE 10 CASOS CLÍNICOS EN PERROS CON KCS CUALITATIVA


Dr+Vet launches a new formulation of LACRIMALIS with a higher concentration of fatty acids, EPA and DHA called LACRIMALIS+

As we have previously explained on the blog through the article “Key Points of Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca”, this is one of the most common ocular pathologies in the daily clinic of small animals. Let’s do a brief review and expansion of what was already discussed in the previous article:

What is keratoconjunctivitis sicca?

Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS) is an inflammatory disease of the ocular surface (cornea and conjunctiva) secondary to the deficiency of some of the phases of the tear film and which generates tear hyperosmolarity. This hyperosmolarity and increased friction will lead to secondary infections, dehydration and malnutrition of the cornea and conjunctiva and will increase the likelihood of corneal ulcerations.

What layers or phases make up the tear film?

– Mucinic layer: the innermost layer, it modifies the surface tension of the tear so that it adheres and distributes correctly on the surface of the cornea. Mucin is produced and secreted mainly in conjunctival goblet cells.

– Aqueous layer: the intermediate and by far the most abundant. It moisturizes the ocular surface and essential nutrients and oxygen for the metabolism of the cornea diffuse through it. It also has a physical effect by washing away corneal debris and foreign bodies. The aqueous portion is produced and secreted in the main and accessory lacrimal glands.

– Lipid layer: the outermost layer, it protects the aqueous layer from evaporation, allowing it to remain on the eye longer. In addition, it also increases the surface tension of the tear, preventing overflow (epiphora) along the eyelid edge and lubricates the eyelids. Produced and secreted mainly by the meibomian glands.

How are KCS classified?

The basic and most widespread classification is the following:

– Qualitative: due to pathological decrease in the lipid or mucoid components of the tear film, which makes it difficult for the tear to remain on the cornea, either due to excess evaporation or difficulty in adhering. It is usually due to damage or inflammation in the meibomian glands or goblet cells of the conjunctiva.

– Quantitative: due to pathological decrease in the aqueous component of the tear film. There may be different origins, the most common being localized and chronic immune-mediated inflammation of the lacrimal gland. It is the most common type of KCS, although most tend to progress to mixed KCS (quantitative and qualitative) over time.

How does LACRIMALIS+ intervene in the improvement of the clinical signs of KCS?

LACRIMALIS+ is a food supplement based on natural products that helps improve the clinical signs of dry eye by increasing the quantity and quality of tears.

Its formula rich in Omega 3 fatty acids helps modify the lipid profile of the tears, making them of better quality and thus reducing their evaporation. In addition, Omega 3 also provides an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect on the meibomian glands and the ocular surface.

LACRIMALIS+ is also enriched with Lactoferrin, a component naturally present in tears and which gives it anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antifungal properties.

Finally, its precise combination of minerals, such as zinc or copper, and vitamins C and E give it an antioxidant effect that enhances that of Omega 3 fatty acids.

What differentiates LACRIMALIS+ from the previous LACRIMALIS?

The main change in the formulation of LACRIMALIS concerns the source of Omega 3 fatty acids. In LACRIMALIS+ we have added purer sources of EPA and DHA. The liquid version is supplemented with a high proportion of fish oil, which contains EPA and DHA naturally and directly, also maintaining the contribution of alpha-linolenic acid already present in LACRIMALIS. As for the tablet version, EPA and DHA are provided pure to guarantee a much higher proportion.


Today we will talk to you about one of the most common eye pathologies in dogs: dry eye disease or Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca.

Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca is an inflammatory disease of the ocular surface (cornea and conjunctiva) secondary to the deficiency of some of the phases of the tear film and which generates tear hyperosmolarity. This hyperosmolarity and increased friction will lead to secondary infections, dehydration and malnutrition of the cornea and conjunctiva and will increase the likelihood of corneal ulcerations. In turn, chronic inflammation of the ocular surface will also end up generating conjunctival hyperemia, hyperkeratinization and thickening of the corneal epithelium, corneal vascularization with increased migration of inflammatory cells and the deposition of pigment, lipids and calcium. The prognosis is usually favorable, although it will depend on the cause of the disease and whether effective treatment is implemented early and individualized for each patient.

There are two main classifications of Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca:

Qualitative: Pathological decrease in the lipid or mucoid components of the tear film. In this case, the lacrimal gland is functional and the hyperosmolarity of the tear is due to an increase in its evaporation. The cause of this type of Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca may be damage or acute/chronic inflammation in the meibomian glands and/or the goblet cells of the conjunctiva, such as in cases of infectious blepharitis, seborrheic dermatitis, etc.
Quantitative: Pathological decrease in the aqueous component of the tear film. In this case, hyperosmolarity is due to reduced secretion of the aqueous component under normal evaporation conditions. This is the most common initial presentation in dogs, although in most cases, a vicious circle is generated in which the other types of components of the tear film are also affected.

The causes of Quantitative Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca are varied, such as infectious diseases, endocrine diseases, systemic immune-mediated/autoimmune diseases, iatrogenic (surgical), etc. although the most common is localized and chronic immune-mediated inflammation of the lacrimal gland (immune-mediated adenitis). There are breeds of dogs and cats that are more predisposed, as we already mentioned in one of our previous posts on our social networks (Instagram and Linkedin), such as brachiocephalic breeds, West Highland White Terriers, Cocker Spaniels and American , etc.

The symptoms that may occur are: very characteristic mucous exudate, conjunctival hyperemia, opaque cornea, with neovascularization, corneal edema and ulceration, etc.

To reach a diagnosis, we will have to be attentive to the patient’s anamnesis and clinical history, perform a general and ophthalmoscopic examination, if we suspect systemic pathologies, general analytical and other complementary tests and followed by ophthalmological tests: Shirmer test, Fluorescein, Lysamine Green Test, TBUT (Tear Break-up Time), Impression Cytology and Osavet Test.

There are various types of systemic and topical medical treatments such as artificial tears (there is a wide variety), topical immunosuppressants, etc. and in most cases they can be applied together. Additionally, if there are secondary problems such as infections or corneal ulcers, these will also need to be treated. There are also surgical procedures such as parathyroid duct transposition, among others.

Another essential asset to help improve the symptoms of Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca, of which studies have already been carried out in dogs and which has others being carried out to demonstrate its effectiveness, will be supplementation with specific nutraceuticals such as Lacrimalis, rich in Omega-Fatty Acids. 3 that will improve the quality, stability and tear secretion, Lactoferrin with anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties on the ocular surface and antioxidants such as Vitamins E and C and the minerals Zinc and Copper.

From Dr+Vet Pet Care by Böthmen Pharma, we will present each of the different ophthalmological tests that we have mentioned little by little over the following weeks together with the Veterinary Ophthalmological Institute (IVO) so that you can learn more about them. lose!


Last Saturday, March 12th was World Glaucoma Day Did you know that Glaucoma is one of the main causes of blindness in dogs? In order to raise awareness about this disease, which is one of the most common ocular emergencies in small animal clinics, we explain below the key points of the pathology.

Glaucoma is a chronic neurodegenerative disease of the optic nerve and retina. It is characterized by an alteration in the balance between the production and outflow of aqueous humor, causing it to accumulate inside the eye and thus increasing the intraocular pressure (IOP). Once the IOP increases, the retinal ganglion cells will be progressively damaged leading to their apoptosis and a neuritis of the optic nerve will be generated, which may lead to the patient’s loss of vision. The patient’s prognosis is usually reserved, with most of them being able to lose the sight of both eyes progressively and even, in some cases, reaching the enucleation of the affected eyes.

There are different classifications of glaucomas:

According to their evolution we can classify them as acute or chronic.
According to the cause, we can differentiate between:
Primary: usually linked to hereditary factors. It is the most common in dogs.
Secondary to other intraocular pathologies. Most commonly in cats.

Depending on the morphology of the iridocorneal angle, they may be:
Open angle: it is the most common in humans. In dogs, there are some predisposed breeds, such as the Beagle or the Norweigan Elkhound.
Narrow angle
Closed angle: It is the most common type in dogs. The most predisposed breeds are American and English Cocker Spaniel, Basset Hound, Chihuahua, Great Dane, Labrador Retriever, Chow-Chow, Shar-pei, etc. as we showed you previously in our social networks (Linkedin, Instagram).

In the initial stages when IOP is slightly elevated, the symptoms usually go unnoticed, but they will progress until IOP is markedly elevated and then the patient may present: severe pain, red eyes, photophobia (intolerance to light), epiphora (excessive and constant tearing), mydriasis (pupil dilation), etc.

To reach the diagnosis we will have to be attentive to the patient’s anamnesis and clinical history, perform a general and ophthalmoscopic examination, measure IOP by tonometry (there is a great variety of different tonometers on the market) and evaluate the morphology of the iridocorneal angle by gonioscopy. In some cases the patient may undergo other tests such as high-resolution ultrasound.

Various types of medical (topical or systemic) or surgical treatments (such as the different techniques of cyclodestructive laser surgery) can be used in an attempt to reduce IOP. Another important asset in the treatment of glaucoma to try to delay the patient’s vision loss as much as possible, either in both eyes if the diagnosis is early or in at least one of the two, when sight has already been lost in one, is supplementation with nutraceuticals such as Glauco, rich in B vitamins and other antioxidant and neuroprotective substances such as Ginkgo Biloba or wild blueberry, to help reduce the progression of the disease by protecting the retina and N. Optic from damaging free radicals due to increased oxidative stress and by increasing blood flow to the optic nerve.

In conclusion, the more information and knowledge we have about glaucoma and the earlier diagnosis can be made when vision is still preserved, the greater the chance that treatment options will be more effective and thus reduce damage to the retina and optic nerve, improving the quality of life of affected dogs.

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